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1、什么是模拟联合国?

    模拟联合国(Model United Nations,MUN)是一种学术性质活动,即模仿现实中联合国及相关的国际机构,依据其运作方式和议事原则,围绕国际上的热点问题召开的会议。青年学生们扮演不同国家的外交官,作为各国代表,参与到“联合国会议”当中。代表们遵循大会规则,在会议主席团的主持下,通过演讲阐述“自己国家”的观点,为了“自己国家”的利益进行辩论、游说,他们与友好的国家沟通协作,解决冲突;他们讨论决议草案,促进国际合作;他们在“联合国”的舞台上,充分发挥自己的才能。在此种会议中,参与者一般情况下扮演他国外交官,依现实国际状况,模拟各种外交活动。其旨在使学生了解各国的立场与处境,跳脱主观意识的盲点,以不同角度看待问题。
 

北京大学亚洲国际模联
新加坡世界模拟联合国大会

    模拟联合国活动最早起源于美国哈佛大学。经过60多年的发展,此项活动现在已经风靡全世界,形式多样,规模不一,有国际大会、全国大会,还有地区级和校际间的大会,参与者有大学生到高中生,乃至初中生。同时,模拟联合国活动已经不仅仅是对联合国机构的模拟,它还包括对其他全球或地区性多边组织,政府内阁,国际论坛等组织或者会议的模拟。目前全世界每年有近四百个国际模拟联合国大会在五大洲的50多个国家召开。每年参与大会的师生来自世界100多个国家,人数超过四百万人。

   

    世界著名的模拟联合国大会有:全国(美国)模拟联合国大会,海牙国际模拟联合国大会,北京大学亚洲国际模拟联合国大会等。 

 

2.大会流程

2011年大会前期时间安排

开始时间

截止时间

内容

 

 

前期大会宣传

 

 

网上宣传及报名

 

 

代表信息收集

 

 

校内代表、志愿者、礼仪培训,缴费

 

2011.12.16

立场文件提交

2011.12.23

2011.12.24

正式会议

会议期间安排

日期

时间

内容

2011.12.23

1600—1800

开幕式及合影(流程见附录八)

2011.12.23

1800—2030

Session 1(含茶歇)

2011.12.23

20: 30—21: 30

Social Event(流程见附录十)

2011.12.24

900—1130

Session 2(含茶歇)

2011.12.24

1400—1630

Session 3(含茶歇)

2011.12.24

1730—1930

颁奖暨闭幕书(流程见附录九)

 

3.会前培训 

参赛代表学术培训:

第四届模拟联合国大会的参赛代表需了解:

    1 模拟联合国大会的具体流程;

    2 模拟联合国大会的议事规则;

    3 模拟联合国大会的磋商技巧;

    4 模拟联合国大会的文件写作;

    5 模拟联合国大会的其他注意事项。

特此,上海大学模拟联合国协会组委会为报名参加上海大学第四届模拟联合国大会的校内代表准备了三场学术培训,能够使得参会代表在会议之前有一个对模拟联合国会议的了解过程,提高了大家参会的质量,为会议能够顺利进行提供了学术保证。 

志愿者培训:

    志愿者是整个第四届模拟模拟联合国大会能够顺利开展的人员保障。志愿者在开闭幕式、会议、party前后都发挥着重要的作用。志愿者人员是从模拟联合国协会媒体部干事中选拔的,并且我们在会议开始前期对志愿者准备了一个系统的培训,使得志愿者能够高质量、高水准的完成必要的工作,同时也保证整个大会能够顺利成功开展。

礼仪人员培训:

    大会礼仪人员的表现与风采体现着此次第四届模拟联合国大会的水准和档次。我们希望将上海大学第四届模拟联合国大会办成一次高水平、高质量、高层次的模拟联合国大会,因此此次大会开闭幕式中的礼仪人员是需要经过严格的训练和培训才能胜任他们的职责。大会组委会同样也为选拔出来的礼仪人员进行为期三天的培训,目的在于,不仅提高他们的专业服务技术与知识,更重要的是培养他们对此次大会的责任感与使命感,使他们能够全心全意地投入到各自的工作中去。

4.评奖制度

总则

上海大学第四届模拟联合国大会奖项评比活动在会议的最后一个会议日进行。具体工作由各委员会主席团以及华东模联大会组委会负责实施。

上海大学第四届模拟联合国大会奖项评比工作本着公平、公正、公开、有序的原则进行,每个委员会主席团须按照指定的获奖人员限额进行推优评比工作

 

奖项设定  

最佳代表Best Delegate

    用于表彰那些在会场中思维活跃、表现积极、贡献卓越的模联代表,人权理事会经社理事会安全理事会各评选出1名最佳代表。

最佳外交风采Best Style 

    用于表彰那些在会场中表现出友好外交风度、大气从容、器宇轩昂的模联代表,人权理事会经社理事会安全理事会各评选出2名最佳外交风采的代表。

最佳立场文件Best Position Paper

    用于表彰那些在会前的立场文件写作中积极准备、文本规范的模联代表。人权理事会经社理事会安全理事会各评选出2名最佳立场文件代表。

最佳媒体Best Media

    用于表彰那些在会议期间表现突出、最佳角色扮演的模拟媒体记者。媒体中心评选出1名最佳媒体代表。

最佳志愿者奖(Best Volunteer

      用于表彰那些在志愿服务中尽忠尽责、热情服务、工作热情的志愿者。志愿者团队中评选出2名(一男一女)最佳志愿者。

评奖委员会

安全理事会主席团,媒体中心主席团

评奖程序

1 初选:各委员会主席团选出在会场中表现积极优秀的、符合评选标准的候选代表;

2 点评:每名主席团成员对获奖候选代表点评100字左右的评语,说明同意或反对的理由;

3 投票:所有主席团成员根据实际情况对上述候选人进行不记名投票筛选,票数相当的候选人重新投票,根据实际需要可以安排代表进行申奖答辩;

4 备案:评比结果上报组委会进行备案整理;

5 公示:评比结果将在闭幕式上唱名表彰,并对获奖者颁发获奖证书和大会纪念品。


SHUMUN 2011

Background Guide

United Nations Human Rights Council

Topic: A. Ban on homosexuality in military

             B. Preservation and abolition of capital punishment

Introduction of the committee 

Brief introduction of UNHRC

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations System. The UNHRC is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR), and is a subsidiary body of the United Nations General Assembly. The council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the United Nations' Special Procedures.

The General Assembly established the UNHRC by adopting a resolution (A/RES/60/251) on 15 March 2006, in order to replace the previous CHR, which had been heavily criticized for allowing countries with poor human rights records to be members.

According to human rights groups, the council is controlled by a bloc of Islamic and African states, backed by China, Cuba and Russia, who protect each other from criticism.[3] UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon and former High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson have criticized the council for acting according to political considerations as opposed to human rights. Specifically, Secretaries General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki Moon, the council's president Doru Costea, the European Union, Canada and the United States have accused the council of focusing disproportionately on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The United States boycotted the Council during the George W. Bush administration, but reversed its position on it during the Obama administration.

On 18 June 2007, one year after holding its first meeting, the UNHRC adopted its Institution-building package, which provides elements to guide it in its future work. Among the elements was the Universal Periodic Review. The Universal Periodic Review will assess the human rights situations in all 192 UN Member States. Another element is an Advisory Committee, which serves as the UNHRC’s think tank, and provides it with expertise and advice on thematic human rights issues, that is, issues which pertain to all parts of the world. Another element is a Complaints Procedure, which allows individuals and organizations to bring complaints about human rights violations to the attention of the Council.

Structure

The members of the General Assembly elect the members who occupy the UNHRC's forty-seven seats. The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms. The seats are distributed among the UN's regional groups as follows: 13 for Africa, 13 for Asia, six for Eastern Europe, eight for Latin America and the Caribbean, and seven for the Western European and Others Group. The previous CHR had a membership of 53 elected by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) through a majority of those present and voting. Members of the Council undergo a new universal review mechanism during their term of membership. The General Assembly can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership. The suspension process requires a two-thirds majority vote by the General Assembly. The resolution establishing the UNHRC states that "members elected to the Council shall uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights."

Members

Members of the UNHRC are elected to staggered three-year terms. The first election of members was held on 9 May 2006. The current members, with the year that the mandate expires in parentheses, are the following:

Introduction of topics

Topic A: Ban on homosexuality in military >>>

Topic B: preservation and abolition of capital punishment>>>