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嵩阳书院介绍


   嵩阳书院位于登封市区北,因地处嵩山之阳,故而得名,它背依嵩山主峰梭极峰,面对流水潺潺的双溪河,两侧峰峦环拱,院内古柏参天,环境古幽,清雅静谧。乾隆皇帝游嵩岳时,曾在此留有“嵩阳书院景最清,石幢犹纪故宫铭”的诗句。

 

   嵩阳书院是我国古代高等学府,它与湖南长沙的岳麓书院,江西庐山的白鹿洞书院,河南商丘的睢阳书院,并称我国古代四大书院。院内有汉封“将军柏”,人称稀世珍宝,门外有大唐碑,素有“嵩山碑王”之称。周柏唐碑互相挺峙映衬,为古老的书院增添了古韵清幽。

 

 

       嵩阳书院是我国古代高等学府,它与湖南长沙的岳麓书院,江西庐山的白鹿洞书院,河南商丘的睢阳书院,并称我国古代四大书院。院内有汉封“将军柏”,人称稀世珍宝,门外有大唐碑,素有“嵩山碑王”之称。周柏唐碑互相挺峙映衬,为古老的书院增添了古韵清幽。

       嵩阳书院以理学著称于世,以文化赡富、文物奇特名扬古今,名人来此讲学授业、游访览胜者,古往今来络绎不绝,诚如诗人闻山所云:

                                                      “嵩阳书院名天下,司马范程亦大家。   周柏唐碑稀世宝,颓垣依旧有光华。”

 

       嵩阳书院建制古朴雅致,中轴线上的主要建筑有5进,廊庑俱全。最前为卷棚大门3间,其后依次为先圣殿、讲堂、道统祠、藏经楼。中轴线两侧的配房有“程朱祠”、“丽泽堂”、书舍、学斋等。嵩阳书院的建筑与寺院不同,它多为滚脊硬山房,覆以灰色筒瓦,现有房舍100余间,面积l万余平方米。   


  书院内原有古柏3株,其中l株已毁,仅余2株称“大将军柏”、“二将军柏”,其树龄4000年以上。院内还保存有《明登封县图碑》等数十通碑刻,院外有著名的《大唐嵩阳观纪圣德感应之颂碑》。


  唐碑由基座、碑身、碑额、云盘、碑背五层雕石组成。唐天宝三年(744年)二月五日立,通高9.02米,宽2.04米,厚1.05米,雄伟壮观,为河南最大的石碑。碑额题“大唐嵩阳观纪圣德感应之颂”12个篆字。碑文末行“天宝三载二月五日建”九字亦作篆体。《金石萃编》说此“碑本八分书,独题年处作小篆,亦它碑所罕有也”。碑文25行,行53字,内容主要记述唐玄宗李隆基为寻求“长生不老”之术,命嵩阳观道士孙太冲炼丹九转的故事。被世人骂为“口蜜腹剑”的奸相李林甫撰文,著名书法家徐浩八分隶书,字态端正,一丝不苟,堪称唐隶上乘作品。清景日昣《说嵩》评此碑“笔法遒雅,姿态横生”,“世状其法‘怒猊抉石。渴骥奔泉’”。徐书刻石存极少,独嵩阳书院大唐碑字迹保存完好,为世人珍贵。


  此碑还以雕刻精美而称著。长方形碑座四面刻有10个窟龛,前后各三,两侧各二。龛内各有1座高浮雕武士像,均高举一手,另一手或握蛇、或提鱼、或执蟾、或拿兵器……鼓目凸腹,开裆丁步,筋肌突暴,姿态威武。龛外平面上线刻童子与卷草。碑首分三层,下层为额文,额文两边浮雕双龙和麒麟;中层为两石并砌承托龙珠的云盘,盘身遍刻大朵云气图案;上层为碑背,雕有巨大工细的二龙戏珠,此装饰既调和了碑首调的氛围,又平衡了碑顶的重心,使整个碑身牢固稳健。该碑石质细腻,虽历经1250多年的阳光暴晒,风雨侵袭,至今碑面依然光滑,乌黑油亮。唐代的文化艺术开元盛世以后,发展到成熟阶段。嵩阳书院大唐碑的雕刻艺术正处在这一成熟阶段的顶峰。因而在唐代石刻中,更具有广泛的代表性。
  2001年6月25日被国务院公布为第五批全国重点文物保护单位。

 

Brief Introduction of Songyang Academy

 

Songyang Academy was an institution of higher education in ancient China. Together with the Yuelu Academy in Changsha, Hunan Province, the Bailu Dong Academy on Lunshan Mountain in Jiangxi Province, and the Suiyang Academy in Shangqiu, Henan Province, it was one of the four great academies in ancient China.

The academies were a unique form of higher education in the society of China. The system appeared in the Tang Dynasty, reached its peak in the North Song Dynasty, and came to an end at the end of the Qing Dynasty, which was only about 100 years ago.



You can see the style of the Qing Dynasty in the layout of the academy. More than 500 rooms still exist so far in the academy.

The Great Tablet


 


Outside the gate, there is a tablet inscription of the Tang Dynasty which is called the "King Tablet of Songshan Mountain". The very old trees and tablet are just two of the ancient relics in this ancient academy.

 

The General Cypresses

In the yard of the academy there are two weirdly shaped giant "General Cypresses" that were planted in the Han Dynasty, which stand opposite to each other. One of them is separated from the middle of the trunk and the other is resting on the wall. Some experts and scientists said that these two cypresses can still live for about 1,000 years.

The 5 Areas in the Academy

Firstly, the Xianshi Temple is a place where teachers and masters of the past are enshrined. Behind it is the lecture hall and then the Daotong Temple. And behind the Daotong Temple lies the Book Collection Building. The rooms on both sides are book rooms, classrooms and so on. On the walls of the bungalows in the yard, there are inscriptions of the scholars of the past dynasties. The content and calligraphy of those inscriptions have their own characteristic styles. In the west, some buildings stand which were used as classrooms and examination rooms during the Qing Dynasty.

History

Songyang Academy was called Songyang Temple in the past. Songyang Temple was created in the 8th year of Taihe, during the reign of Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty. The temple had several hundred monks, and Songyang Temple used to be where Buddhist activities were held.

During the years of Daye, in the reign of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty, the temple's name was changed to Songyang Taoist Temple, and it was where Taoist activities were held. In the 2nd year of Jinghu, during the reign of Emperor Renzong of the Song Dynasty, the Songyang Taoist Temple became the Songyang Academy, a major Confucian academy. Then, the Songyang Academy was an educational institution where famous scholars gave lectures on classics.

At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the Songyang Academy was destroyed in the war. Emperors of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty all helped to build the Songyang Academy. Once, the Songyang Academy had over 1,750 mu of land, several hundred students and more than 2,000 books.

At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Imperial Civil Examination System was abolished and new schools were set up. As a result, the Confucian academic system that had a history of over 1,000 years came to an end. However, as a bright pearl in the educational history of ancient China, the Songyang Academy would be written into the annals of history.

三宝斋陈鹏大师

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地址:河南省登封市嵩阳路北段嵩阳书院内    因缘热线:021-39117175   13916767774     Email: 8168235@QQ.com

 

Add: Song Yang Academy ,North Song Yang Rd, Deng Feng City, Henan Province.

 

Shanghai Office Tel: 021-39217175   ,13916767774  Mr.Gao  Email: 8168235@qq.com

           

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